A geiger counter detects nuclear radiation by measuring the emission of ionizing radiation of alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays. Also referred to as a radiation detector, a geiger counter consists of two main elements: the processing electronics and the geiger tube. The geiger tube is filled with low-pressure inert gas like helium, argon or neon. If radioactive radiation occurs, the inert gas is ionized. An anode within the geiger tube registers the quantity of ionized particles numerically correlating with the strength of the radioactive radiation. The radioactivity measurement is then displayed on the LCD screen of the geiger counter or radiation detector.
It is very important to measure radioactivity as well as to classify radioactivity values. For example, terrestrial gamma radiation is measured according to general values from 0.03 - 0.3 µSv/h (microsievert / hour). This "normal" oscillation range is conditioned by natural radioactive elements in the ground such as uranium and potassium. To calculate this factor, one must take into consideration cosmic radiation. For example, when considering cosmic radiation, the maximum radioactivity content at Schneefernerhaus, the highest-located German environmental research station, is approximately equal to 110 µSv/h.
At PCE Instruments, you will find three types of geiger counter or raditation detection devices to help you measure radioactivity: 1) alpha radioactivity meters, 2) meters for detecting alpha, beta and gamma radioactivity and 3) radioactivity meters for human beings.
To learn more about geiger counter applications and how to detect radioactivity, please watch the video and read the information provided below.