The microscope is a device that is used to see material that is too small to see with the naked eye. There are many types of microscopes; the most common is the optical microscope. The optical microscope is composed of a magnifying lens and an eyepiece that join together in a tube, an illuminated stage where the object being observed is placed and a tripod to secure the optical components. The source of light of the microscope is generally a small bulb attached to the tripod of lenses that can be adjusted (lens or system of lenses near the bulb) and fixed behind the illuminated area. The microscope condenser is a complicated system of lenses or mirrors that reproduce the light on the surface of the object. The microscope lens, or lenses, amplifies the object so that this magnified image can be viewed in the eyepiece. The microscope also has two eyepieces to allow the object to be viewed more comfortably and with much better accuracy than ever before.
Another type of microscope is the electron microscope - which works on the same principle as an optical microscope, but uses electrons in the place of light and electromagnets instead of glass lenses. The electron microscope has a higher resolution power than a light microscope, due to the fact that the wavelength of an electron can be up to 100,000x shorter than that of visible light photons. Therefore, it can reveal the structure of smaller objects than that of an optical light microscope.
The ultra-microscope is another type of microscope, the ultra-microscope has the capability to measure very small particles. In the ultra-microscope, the materials to be observed are dispersed in a liquid or gas colloidal suspension. Then the colloidal suspension is placed in a light-absorbing, dark enclosure, and illuminated with a convergent beam of very strong light that enters into the enclosure from one side. The light hitting the colloidal particles will then be scattered, and the tiniest particles can then be viewed with incredibly high resolution.
There is also the scanning probe type microscope, in which the microscope forms images of surfaces using a physical probe, or series of probes, that scans the specimen. The scanning probe microscope has the ability to measure physical properties such as conductivity, static charge, friction, electromagnetic fields, and modular elasticity. The scanning probe microscope has the ability to create 3D images of items.
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